Cathedral Square (Sobornaja plošaď) is the centre of the complex and it is surrounded by the three most precious Russian cathedrals: Uspensky, Archangelsky and Blagoveshchensky. Another significant building is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower with the world’s biggest bell inside.
Kremlin is situated on the left bank of the Moskva River on the Borovitsky Hill. In the deep past, The Kremlin used to be made only of wood. Ivan Kalita had the fortress rebuilt in the 14th century so the first white stone buildings have their origin in this period. This created a panorama similar to the current one. In 1365, the fortress was seriously damaged in fire which lead to even wider use of stone instead of wood in buildings. In the following centuries, more buildings were added to The Kremlin. In the 15th century, Ivan III had The Kremlin rebuilt by Italian architects. Russian and foreign artists created a unique appearance especially of Cathedral Square. The Uspensky Cathedral was built in this period and it is the main cathedral of Russia . The coronation of Ivan IV as the first Russian Tsar took place there in 1547. Saint Basil’s Cathedral was built under his rule and it is the most outstanding building in Moscow. It’s uniqueness was emphasized by building it next to the gate called Spasskie Vorota where the new centre began to arise. After 1612, The Kremlin was in decay. Everything in the complex was abandoned or stolen. Peter the Great moved his residence from Moscow to Petersburg and The Kremlin lost its significance. During Napoleon’s occupation of Moscow, the buildings were being destroyed, burnt down and the treasures got stolen. After 1918, Moscow was again claimed the Russian capital.
The Kremlin is a residence of Russian monarchs and officials of the Soviet Union. Both Lenin and Stalin had their own rooms in The Kremlin. Nowadays it is the seat of government and also serves as a museum with several guided tours, you can visit three cathedrals or the bell tower. If you wish to see Russian Tsars’s treasures, their clothes, religious items or weapons, visit The Armoury (Oruzheynaya Palata) . A permanent exposition about Kremlin architecture development can be seen in the museum.